"Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes.
We have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), and benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human infections, and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains NCTC11168 and 81-176.
AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial activity against C. jejuni. BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial effect (MIC of 1.25-5 μg mL(-1)) compared to AITC (MIC of 50-200 μg mL(-1)). Both compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic.
The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni isolates against isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT (γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase) encoding gene in the genome, with antibiotic resistance nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate compared to wild-type when exposed to ITC. This work determined the MIC of two ITC against a panel of C. jejuni isolates, showed that both compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic, and highlighted the role of GGT enzyme in the survival rate of C. jejuni exposed to ITC."
"Isothiocyanate profile and selective antibacterial activity of root, stem, and leaf extracts derived from Raphanus sativus L.," Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009 Jan-Feb;6(1):129-36. doi: 10.1089/ fpd.2008.0166. Beevi SS1, Mangamoori LN, Dhand V, Ramakrishna DS., Centre for Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, India.
"Acetone and hexane extracts derived from the root, stem, and leaf of Raphanus sativus (Radishes) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against foodborne and resistant pathogens, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli. Total and individual isothiocyanate (ITC) components and their relationship with the antibacterial activity of R. sativus were also evaluated.
Both acetone and hexane fractions of root, stem, and leaf exhibited selective antibacterial activity against the organisms tested. Antibacterial activity was strongest in the acetone fraction of root with larger zone of inhibition and lower minimum inhibitory concentration. The results obtained were comparable to that seen with standard antibiotics. Of the different parts of R. sativus studied, root tended to be more active than the stem and leaf extracts in inhibiting the bacterial growth.
Gas chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of variable amounts of five different ITCs such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate, and 4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) in different parts of the plant.
The low linear correlation between the total ITC content and antibacterial activity implied that bacterial growth inhibitory ability of R. sativus was not dependent on the total ITC content. However, the antibacterial activity of R. sativus was well correlated with AITC, PITC, and BITC for all organisms except for Enteroc. faecalis, whose inhibitory effect was more related to MTBITC."
"Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria," PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23045. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023045. Epub 2011 Aug 1., Sofrata A1, Santangelo EM, Azeem M, Borg-Karlson AK, Gustafsson A, Pütsep K., Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization.
S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells.
The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens.
Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.
"Evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in Brassica vegetables," Jang M1, Hong E, Kim GH.,J Food Sci. 2010 Sep;75(7):M412-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01725.x. Plant Resources Research Inst., Duksung Women's Univ., Seoul 132-714, Korea.
This study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate) against 4 Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) and 7 Gram-negative bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleaesuis, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Shigella sonnei, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay.
Benzyl isothiocyanate (> 90.00 mm inhibition zone diameter at 0.1 μL/mL) and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (58.33 mm at 0.2 μL/mL) showed large inhibition zones especially against B. cereus. Also, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate (21.67 mm at 1.0 μL/mL) and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate (19.67 mm at 1.0 μL/mL) displayed potent antibacterial activity against A. hydrophila. Benzyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate indicated higher activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria than 3-butenyl and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate, and were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.
"Phytochemical and antifungal profiles of the seeds of carica papaya L.," Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 Jul;73(4):447-51. doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.95648. Singh O1, Ali M., Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110 062, India.
Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extracts of the seeds of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) led to the isolation of 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (caricaphenyl triol) and glyceryl-1-(2',3',4'-trihydroxybenzoyl)-2,3-dioleate (papayaglyceride) as the new phytoconstituents along with the known components glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dilinoleiate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-diarachidate, glyceryl-1-linoleiyl-2,3-distearate, carpaine, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmitate, glyceryl trimyristate, glyceryl tristearate, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmityl-3-myristate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dimyristate, β-sitosterol glucoside, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-3-phosphate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2-lauryl-3-phosphate and glyceryl-1,2-distearyl-3-phosphate. The structures of all these compounds have been elucidated by spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.
The methanolic extract of the seeds and 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (200 μg/ml) showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Penicillium citrinium.
"Benzyl isothiocyanate inhibits oxidative stress in mouse skin: Involvement of attenuation of leukocyte infiltration," Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):255-7. Nakamura Y1, Miyoshi N, Takabayashi S, Osawa T. ,Laboratory of Food and Biodynamics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan. email@example.com
The exposure of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) to mouse skin resulted in the attenuation of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative damage through not only inhibition of the NADPH oxidase system but also leukocyte clearance at inflamed region. In spite of little ability to affect TPA-induced edema formation, pretreatments of mouse skin with BITC before the first or second TPA treatment significantly decrease the H2O2 level.
A histological study also demonstrated that BITC enhanced the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive index in mouse skin, suggesting that BITC might accelerate the disappearance of infiltrated leukocytes. Thus, these gathered data further supported that BITC has a potential as an anti-inflammatory agent.
BiTC may increase energy levels and help in weight loss, according to a 2017 study published in Molecular Nutrition Feed Researh. (1) It notes that other recent research has shown that isothiocyanates are able to activate the release of several gut hormones according to in vitro and in rodent studies.
Here, they tested the effects of a dietary nasturtium administration on circulating levels of gut hormones in humans. "Given the finding that nasturtium consumption enhances secretion of PYY, a key hormone involved in energy regulation, special diets containing nasturtium, or supplementation with nasturtium or BITC might be considered in the treatment of obesity. "Oral administration of nasturtium affects peptide YY secretion in male subjects," Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Aug;61(8). doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600886. Epub 2017 Apr 6., Schiess S1, Platz S2, Kemper M1,3,4, Schreiner M5, Mewis I5, Rohn S2, Bumke-Vogt C5, Pivovarova O1,3,4, Pfeiffer AFH1,3,4
"Effects of garden and water cress juices and their constituents, benzyl and phenethyl isothiocyanates, towards benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA damage: a model study with the single cell gel electrophoresis/Hep G2 assay." Chem Biol Interact. 2003 Jan 6;142(3):285-96., Kassie F1, Laky B, Gminski R, Mersch-Sundermann V, Scharf G, Lhoste E, Kansmüller S., Institute of Cancer Research, University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective effects of water and garden cress juices towards benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced DNA damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 test system. This experimental model combines the advantages of the SCGE assay with that of human derived cells possessing inducible phase I and phase II enzymes.
Treatment of Hep G2 cells with small amounts of water cress or garden cress juice (0.1-1.25 microl/ml) and B(a)P reduced the genotoxic effect of the latter in a dose-dependent manner. Contrary to the results with the juices, unexpected synergistic effects were observed with benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, 0.6 microM), a breakdown product of glucotropaeolin contained abundantly in garden cress. Although these concentrations of BITC did not cause DNA damage per se, at higher concentrations (> or = 2.5 microM), the compound caused a pronounced dose-dependent DNA damage by itself.
With phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), the breakdown product of gluconasturtin contained in water cress, no synergistic effects with B(a)P were seen; however, significant induction of DNA damage was observed when the cells were exposed to the pure compound at concentrations > or = 5 microM. In experiments with (+/-)-anti-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE, 5.0 microM), the ultimate genotoxic metabolite of B(a)P, and the juices, only moderate protective effects were seen indicating that detoxification of BPDE is not the main mechanism behind the protective effect of the juices against B(a)P-induced DNA damage.
In conclusion, our findings show that garden and water cress juices are highly protective against B(a)P-induced DNA damage in human derived cells and that their effects can not be explained by their isothiocyanate contents.
Effects of BITC on Expelling Intestinal Worms "Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.," Phytother Res. 2005 Jul;19(7):628-32. Adebiyi A1, Adaikan PG., Pharmacology Section, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074.
"Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study, an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly irreversible."
"Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64 mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was, however, less marked.
These results indicate that papaya seed extract and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal functions.Are your customers raving about you on social media? Share their great stories to help turn potential customers into loyal ones."
BITC Induces Detoxifyting Enzymes "Differing mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds." Phytochemistry. 2009 Jul-Aug;70(11-12):1401-9. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem. 2009.07.035. Epub 2009 Sep 9. Williams DJ1, Critchley C, Pun S, Chaliha M, O'Hare TJ.," The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia. email@example.com
"Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in watercress (Nasturtium officinale). "
"Previous studies on these salad crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1) under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress.
In an effort to understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments.
We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds. Limited thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120 degrees C. In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile. On heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold."
"Influence of plant and bacterial myrosinase activity on the metabolic fate of glucosinolates in gnotobiotic rats," Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):395-404., Rouzaud G1, Rabot S, Ratcliffe B, Duncan AJ., Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, UK.
The breakdown of glucosinolates, a group of thioglucoside compounds found in cruciferous plants, is catalysed by dietary or microbial myrosinase. This hydrolysis releases a range of breakdown products among which are the isothiocyanates, which have been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of cruciferous vegetables.
The respective involvement of plant myrosinase and gut bacterial myrosinase in the conversion, in vivo, of glucosinolates into isothiocyanates was investigated in sixteen Fischer 344 rats. Glucosinolate hydrolysis in gnotobiotic rats harbouring a whole human faecal flora (Flora+) was compared with that in germ-free rats (Flora-). Rats were offered a diet where plant myrosinase was either active (Myro+) or inactive (Myro-). The conversion of prop-2-enyl glucosinolate and benzyl glucosinolate to their related isothiocyanates, allyl isothiocyanate and benzyl isothiocyanate, was estimated using urinary mercapturic acids, which are endproducts of isothiocyanate metabolism.
The highest excretion of urinary mercapturic acids was found when only plant myrosinase was active (Flora-, Myro+ treatment). Lower excretion was observed when both plant and microbial myrosinases were active (Flora+, Myro+ treatment). Excretion of urinary mercapturic acids when only microbial myrosinase was active (Flora+, Myro- treatment) was low and comparable with the levels in the absence of myrosinase (Flora-, Myro- treatment).
No intact glucosinolates were detected in the faeces of rats from the Flora+ treatments confirming the strong capacity of the microflora to break down glucosinolates. The results confirm that plant myrosinase can catalyse substantial release of isothiocyanates in vivo. The results also suggest that the human microflora may, in some circumstances, reduce the proportion of isothiocyanates available for intestinal absorption.
"Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.", Life Sci. 2002 Jun 21;71(5):497-507. Wilson RK1, Kwan TK, Kwan CY, Sorger GJ., Smooth Muscle Research Program, Department of Medicine, HSC 4N40, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street W., L8N 3Z5, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery.
BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact.
The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing.
Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract.
We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient.
"Pregnancy outcomes following pre- and post-implantation exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to benzyl isothiocyanate," Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 May;42(5):715-20., Adebiyi A1, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN., Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074, Singapore.
The present investigation examines the outcomes of rats' pregnancy following pre- and post-implantation maternal exposure (orally) to benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC; 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight). Three maternal deaths were recorded in the group of rats treated with 50 mg/kg BITC. Obvious signs of toxicity characterized by hypo-activity, perinasal staining, piloerection, hunched posture and decrease in body weights were observed in BITC-treated rats during the treatment periods.
Dose-dependent increase in early fetal resorptions was seen in rats treated with BITC prior to implantation, but was not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in the number of implantation sites in treatment groups compared with the control. Similarly, there were no significant differences in the number of fetal resorptions, relative weights of maternal liver, kidney and spleen of rats in post-implantation treatment groups compared with the control.
The differences in the number of viable fetuses in treatment groups compared with the control were also not significant. However, fetal weights in rats treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg BITC and placental weights in all the treatment groups were significantly lower than the control.
In conclusion, at 12.5-50 mg/kg, BITC did not cause significant pre- and post-implantation fetal loss in pregnant rats. BITC-induced low fetal and placental weights could be of obstetrical importance, but at levels/doses that would provoke maternal toxicity.
"Effect of benzyl isothiocyanate on spontaneous and induced force of rat uterine contraction. " Pharmacol Res. 2004 May;49(5):415-22., Adebiyi A1, Adaikan PG,, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, 119074, Singapore.
The present study examines the effect of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) on uterine contraction in vitro. BITC (10-320 microM) caused irreversible, concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous, prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and oxytocin-induced force of gravid and non-gravid rat uterine contractions in contrast to equivalent concentrations of DMSO (solvent control).
At 160 microM of BITC, spontaneous, PGF(2alpha) and oxytocin-induced force of gravid rat myometrial contractions were reduced to 16 +/- 6%, 15 +/- 7 % and 17 +/- 4% (of the control contractions), respectively. Moreover, at 320 microM of BITC, spontaneous, PGF(2alpha) and oxytocin-induced force of non-gravid rat uterine contractions were reduced to 10+/-5 %, 4+/-1 % and 7+/-2 % (of the control contractions), respectively.
Incubation of isolated non-gravid rat uterine strips in Ringer Locke solution containing 100 microM of BITC for 1h prior to recording their activity also caused significant and irreversible depression of KCl (60mM)-induced tension development in the uterus relative to the solvent control (P < 0.01).
In 56% of BITC-pretreated uterine tissues, spontaneous contractions were totally abolished. Cryosections of BITC-treated uterus (hematoxyline and eosin stained) examined under light microscope revealed structural disintegrity with marked vacuolar degeneration of the endometrium and myometrium.
It thus appears that like the vascular smooth muscle (reported by previous workers), BITC is also capable of causing functional aberration of isolated uterus by provoking degeneration of the myometrium.
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