Caricaya Benzyl Glucosinolate, Antimicrobial Properties


BITC Antibacterial Properties Similar to Standard Antibotics

"Antimicrobial acxtivites of isothiocyanates against Campylobater jejuni isolates," Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012 Apr 20;2:53. doi: 10.3389/ fcimb.2012.00053. eCollection  2012.  Dufour V1, Alazzam B, Ermel G, Thepaut M, Rossero A, Tresse O, Baysse C.


"Food-borne human infection with Campylobacter jejuni is a medical concern in both  industrialized and developing countries.  Efficient eradication of C. jejuni reservoirs within live animals and processed foods is limited by  the development of antimicrobial resistances and by practical problems  related to the use of conventional antibiotics in food processes. 

We  have investigated the bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of two  phytochemicals, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), and benzyl isothiocyanate  (BITC), against 24 C. jejuni isolates from chicken feces, human  infections, and contaminated foods, as well as two reference strains  NCTC11168 and 81-176. 

AITC and BITC displayed a potent antibacterial  activity against C. jejuni.  BITC showed a higher overall antibacterial  effect (MIC of 1.25-5 μg mL(-1)) compared to AITC (MIC of  50-200 μg mL(-1)). Both compounds are bactericidal rather than  bacteriostatic. 

The sensitivity levels of C. jejuni isolates against  isothiocyanates were neither correlated with the presence of a GGT  (γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase) encoding gene in the genome, with antibiotic  resistance nor with the origin of the biological sample. However the  ggt mutant of C. jejuni 81-176 displayed a decreased survival rate  compared to wild-type when exposed to ITC.  This work determined the MIC  of two ITC against a panel of C. jejuni isolates, showed that both  compounds are bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic, and highlighted  the role of GGT enzyme in the survival rate of C. jejuni exposed to ITC."

"Isothiocyanate profile and selective antibacterial activity of root, stem, and leaf extracts derived from Raphanus sativus L.," Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009 Jan-Feb;6(1):129-36. doi: 10.1089/ fpd.2008.0166. Beevi SS1, Mangamoori LN, Dhand V, Ramakrishna DS., Centre for Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, India.


"Acetone  and hexane extracts derived from the root, stem, and leaf of Raphanus sativus  (Radishes) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against  foodborne and resistant pathogens, such as Bacillus subtilis,  Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus  faecalis, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter  cloacae, and Escherichia coli. Total and individual isothiocyanate (ITC)  components and their relationship with the antibacterial activity of R.  sativus were also evaluated. 

Both acetone and hexane fractions of root,  stem, and leaf exhibited selective antibacterial activity against the  organisms tested. Antibacterial activity was strongest in the acetone  fraction of root with larger zone of inhibition and lower minimum  inhibitory concentration. The results obtained were comparable to that seen with standard antibiotics. Of the different parts of R. sativus  studied, root tended to be more active than the stem and leaf extracts  in inhibiting the bacterial growth. 

Gas chromatographic analysis  revealed the presence of variable amounts of five different ITCs such as  allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC), benzyl  isothiocyanate (BITC), phenethyl isothiocyanate, and  4-(methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) in different parts of  the plant. 

The low linear correlation between the total ITC content and  antibacterial activity implied that bacterial growth inhibitory ability  of R. sativus was not dependent on the total ITC content. However, the antibacterial activity of R. sativus was well correlated with AITC,  PITC, and BITC for all organisms except for Enteroc. faecalis, whose  inhibitory effect was more related to MTBITC."

Gram-Negative Anti-Bacterial Properties of BITC

"Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria," PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23045. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023045. Epub  2011 Aug 1., Sofrata A1, Santangelo EM, Azeem M, Borg-Karlson AK, Gustafsson A, Pütsep K., Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.


Plants  produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub  Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial  activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been  used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging  reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial  properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to  identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical  characterization. 

S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam  distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample  volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified  by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The  antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid  chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize  the effect on bacterial cells. 

The main antibacterial component of both  S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root  extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited  rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in  periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria,  while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or  remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal  effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a  specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing  Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. 

Our results indicate the need for  further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of  Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

"Evaluation of antibacterial activity of 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate in Brassica vegetables,"  Jang M1, Hong E, Kim GH.,J Food Sci. 2010 Sep;75(7):M412-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01725.x.  Plant Resources Research Inst., Duksung Women's Univ., Seoul 132-714, Korea.


This  study investigated antibacterial activities of 4 isothiocyanates  (3-butenyl, 4-phentenyl, 2-phenylethyl, and benzyl isothiocyanate)  against 4 Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis,  Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) and 7 Gram-negative  bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella  choleaesuis, Salmonella enterica, Serratia marcescens, Shigella sonnei,  and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) by an agar disc diffusion assay. 

Benzyl  isothiocyanate (> 90.00 mm inhibition zone diameter at 0.1 μL/mL) and  2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (58.33 mm at 0.2 μL/mL) showed large  inhibition zones especially against B. cereus. Also, 3-butenyl  isothiocyanate (21.67 mm at 1.0 μL/mL) and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate  (19.67 mm at 1.0 μL/mL) displayed potent antibacterial activity against  A. hydrophila. Benzyl and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate indicated higher  activity against most of the pathogenic bacteria than 3-butenyl and  4-pentenyl isothiocyanate, and were more effective against Gram-positive  bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

BITC Anti-Fungal Properties

"Phytochemical and antifungal profiles of the seeds of carica papaya L.,"  Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 Jul;73(4):447-51. doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.95648. Singh O1, Ali M., Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi-110 062, India.


Phytochemical  investigation of the ethanolic extracts of the seeds of Carica papaya  L. (Caricaceae) led to the isolation of 2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene  (caricaphenyl triol) and  glyceryl-1-(2',3',4'-trihydroxybenzoyl)-2,3-dioleate (papayaglyceride)  as the new phytoconstituents along with the known components  glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dilinoleiate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-diarachidate,  glyceryl-1-linoleiyl-2,3-distearate, carpaine, glyceryl-1,2-dipalmitate,  glyceryl trimyristate, glyceryl tristearate,  glyceryl-1,2-dipalmityl-3-myristate, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2,3-dimyristate,  β-sitosterol glucoside, glyceryl-1-oleiyl-3-phosphate,  glyceryl-1-oleiyl-2-lauryl-3-phosphate and  glyceryl-1,2-distearyl-3-phosphate. The structures of all these  compounds have been elucidated by spectral data analysis and chemical  reactions. 

The methanolic extract of the seeds and  2,3,4-trihydroxytoluene (200 μg/ml) showed antifungal activity against  Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Penicillium citrinium.

Has Potential As An Anti-Inflammatory

"Benzyl isothiocyanate inhibits oxidative stress in mouse skin: Involvement of attenuation of leukocyte infiltration,"  Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):255-7. Nakamura Y1, Miyoshi N, Takabayashi S, Osawa T. ,Laboratory  of Food and Biodynamics, Nagoya University Graduate School of  Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.


The  exposure of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) to mouse skin resulted in the attenuation of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced  oxidative damage through not only inhibition of the NADPH oxidase system  but also leukocyte clearance at inflamed region. In spite of little ability to affect TPA-induced edema formation, pretreatments of mouse skin with BITC before the first or second TPA treatment significantly decrease the H2O2 level. 

A histological study also demonstrated that  BITC enhanced the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive index in mouse skin, suggesting that BITC might accelerate the disappearance of infiltrated leukocytes. Thus,  these gathered data further supported that BITC has a potential as an  anti-inflammatory agent.

Energy Level, DNA Protection & Detoxifying Benefits of BITC


BITC Increases Energy Levels and Weight Loss

BiTC may increase energy levels and help in weight loss, according to a 2017 study published in Molecular Nutrition Feed Researh. (1)   It notes that other recent research has shown that isothiocyanates are able to activate the  release of several gut hormones according to in vitro and in rodent studies.

Here, they  tested the effects of a dietary nasturtium administration on  circulating levels of gut hormones in humans. "Given the finding that nasturtium consumption enhances secretion of PYY,  a key hormone involved in energy regulation, special diets containing  nasturtium, or supplementation with nasturtium or BITC might be  considered in the treatment of obesity.   "Oral administration of nasturtium affects peptide YY secretion in male subjects," Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Aug;61(8). doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600886. Epub  2017 Apr 6., Schiess S1, Platz S2, Kemper M1,3,4, Schreiner M5, Mewis I5, Rohn S2, Bumke-Vogt C5, Pivovarova O1,3,4, Pfeiffer AFH1,3,4

Other Actives in Garden Cress May Reduce Cell DNA Damage

"Effects  of garden and water cress juices and their constituents, benzyl and  phenethyl isothiocyanates, towards benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA damage: a  model study with the single cell gel electrophoresis/Hep G2 assay." Chem Biol Interact. 2003 Jan 6;142(3):285-96., Kassie F1, Laky B, Gminski R, Mersch-Sundermann V, Scharf G, Lhoste E, Kansmüller S., Institute of Cancer Research, University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.


The  aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective effects of  water and garden cress juices towards benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced DNA  damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE)/Hep G2 test  system. This experimental model combines the advantages of the SCGE  assay with that of human derived cells possessing inducible phase I and  phase II enzymes. 

Treatment of Hep G2 cells with small amounts of water  cress or garden cress juice (0.1-1.25 microl/ml) and B(a)P reduced the genotoxic effect of the latter in a dose-dependent manner. Contrary to  the results with the juices, unexpected synergistic effects were  observed with benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, 0.6 microM), a breakdown  product of glucotropaeolin contained abundantly in garden cress.  Although these concentrations of BITC did not cause DNA damage per se, at higher concentrations (> or = 2.5 microM), the compound caused a  pronounced dose-dependent DNA damage by itself. 

With phenethyl  isothiocyanate (PEITC), the breakdown product of gluconasturtin  contained in water cress, no synergistic effects with B(a)P were seen;  however, significant induction of DNA damage was observed when the cells  were exposed to the pure compound at concentrations > or = 5 microM.  In experiments with  (+/-)-anti-benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE, 5.0  microM), the ultimate genotoxic metabolite of B(a)P, and the juices,  only moderate protective effects were seen indicating that  detoxification of BPDE is not the main mechanism behind the protective  effect of the juices against B(a)P-induced DNA damage. 

In conclusion,  our findings show that garden and water cress juices are highly protective against B(a)P-induced DNA damage in human derived cells and  that their effects can not be explained by their isothiocyanate  contents. 

BITC Used in Folk Medicine as De-Wormer

Effects of BITC on Expelling Intestinal Worms "Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.," Phytother Res.  2005 Jul;19(7):628-32. Adebiyi A1, Adaikan PG., Pharmacology  Section, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University  of Singapore, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road,  Singapore 119074.  


"Carica  papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine  to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study,  an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused  concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast  to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The  inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly  irreversible."

"Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate  (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic  activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64  mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal  contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced  inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC  versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum  showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in  contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was,  however, less marked. 

These results indicate that papaya seed extract  and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening  the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus  envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal  functions.Are your customers raving about you on social media? Share their great stories to help turn potential customers into loyal ones."

Induces Detoxifyting Enzymes

BITC Induces Detoxifyting Enzymes "Differing  mechanisms of simple nitrile formation on glucosinolate degradation in Lepidium sativum and Nasturtium officinale seeds." Phytochemistry. 2009 Jul-Aug;70(11-12):1401-9. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem. 2009.07.035. Epub  2009 Sep 9. Williams DJ1, Critchley C, Pun S, Chaliha M, O'Hare TJ.," The University of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.


"Glucosinolates are sulphur-containing glycosides found in brassicaceous plants that can be hydrolysed enzymatically by plant myrosinase or non-enzymatically to form primarily isothiocyanates and/or simple nitriles. From a human health perspective, isothiocyanates are quite important because they are major inducers of carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes. Two of the most potent inducers are benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) present in garden cress  (Lepidium sativum), and phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) present in  watercress (Nasturtium officinale). "

"Previous studies on these salad  crops have indicated that significant amounts of simple nitriles are  produced at the expense of the isothiocyanates. These studies also  suggested that nitrile formation may occur by different pathways: (1)  under the control of specifier protein in garden cress and (2) by an  unspecified, non-enzymatic path in watercress.

 In an effort to  understand more about the mechanisms involved in simple nitrile formation in these species, we analysed their seeds for specifier  protein and myrosinase activities, endogenous iron content and  glucosinolate degradation products after addition of different iron species, specific chelators and various heat treatments. 

We confirmed that simple nitrile formation was predominantly under specifier protein control (thiocyanate-forming protein) in garden cress seeds.  Limited  thermal degradation of the major glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin (benzyl  glucosinolate), occurred when seed material was heated to >120  degrees C.  In the watercress seeds, however, we show for the first time that gluconasturtiin (phenylethyl glucosinolate) undergoes a  non-enzymatic, iron-dependent degradation to a simple nitrile.  On  heating the seeds to 120 degrees C or greater, thermal degradation of  this heat-labile glucosinolate increased simple nitrile levels many fold."  

More Research on Caricaya's Active from Garden Cress


Cruciferous Vegetables Protect Controlled Division of Normal Cells

"Influence of plant and bacterial myrosinase activity on the metabolic fate of glucosinolates in gnotobiotic rats,"  Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):395-404., Rouzaud G1, Rabot S, Ratcliffe B, Duncan AJ., Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, UK.


The  breakdown of glucosinolates, a group of thioglucoside compounds found in cruciferous plants, is catalysed by dietary or microbial myrosinase.  This hydrolysis releases a range of breakdown products among which are the isothiocyanates, which have been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of cruciferous vegetables. 

The respective involvement of plant  myrosinase and gut bacterial myrosinase in the conversion, in vivo, of glucosinolates into isothiocyanates was investigated in sixteen Fischer 344 rats. Glucosinolate hydrolysis in gnotobiotic rats harbouring a whole human faecal flora (Flora+) was compared with that in germ-free  rats (Flora-). Rats were offered a diet where plant myrosinase was either active (Myro+) or inactive (Myro-). The conversion of prop-2-enyl  glucosinolate and benzyl glucosinolate to their related isothiocyanates, allyl isothiocyanate and benzyl isothiocyanate, was estimated using urinary mercapturic acids, which are endproducts of  isothiocyanate metabolism. 

The highest excretion of urinary mercapturic  acids was found when only plant myrosinase was active (Flora-, Myro+  treatment). Lower excretion was observed when both plant and microbial  myrosinases were active (Flora+, Myro+ treatment). Excretion of urinary  mercapturic acids when only microbial myrosinase was active (Flora+,  Myro- treatment) was low and comparable with the levels in the absence  of myrosinase (Flora-, Myro- treatment). 

No intact glucosinolates were  detected in the faeces of rats from the Flora+ treatments confirming the  strong capacity of the microflora to break down glucosinolates. The  results confirm that plant myrosinase can catalyse substantial release of isothiocyanates in vivo. The results also suggest that the human microflora may, in some circumstances, reduce the proportion of isothiocyanates available for intestinal absorption.

Effects on Vascular Muscle Contraction

"Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.", Life Sci. 2002 Jun 21;71(5):497-507. Wilson RK1, Kwan TK, Kwan CY, Sorger GJ., Smooth  Muscle Research Program, Department of Medicine, HSC 4N40, McMaster  University, 1200 Main Street W., L8N 3Z5, Hamilton, ON, Canada.


To  investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular  smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active  ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested  for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery.  

BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue  strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation  of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of  contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE.  This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be  endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same  degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the  preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. 

The effects of  both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not  recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing.  Exposure  of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the  tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and  subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl  and then washing. 

Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial  cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to  addition of the papaya seed extract. 

We conclude that these extracts,  when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the  membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya  seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief  bio-active ingredient.

Research Behind Label Caution for Early Pregnancy


Pregnancy Outcomes in Rats

"Pregnancy outcomes following pre- and post-implantation exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to benzyl isothiocyanate," Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 May;42(5):715-20., Adebiyi A1, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN., Department  of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, National University of Singapore,  National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074,  Singapore.


The  present investigation examines the outcomes of rats' pregnancy  following pre- and post-implantation maternal exposure (orally) to  benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC; 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight). Three  maternal deaths were recorded in the group of rats treated with 50 mg/kg  BITC. Obvious signs of toxicity characterized by hypo-activity,  perinasal staining, piloerection, hunched posture and decrease in body  weights were observed in BITC-treated rats during the treatment periods.  

Dose-dependent increase in early fetal resorptions was seen in rats treated with BITC prior to implantation, but was not statistically  significant. There were no significant differences in the number of  implantation sites in treatment groups compared with the control.  Similarly, there were no significant differences in the number of fetal  resorptions, relative weights of maternal liver, kidney and spleen of  rats in post-implantation treatment groups compared with the control.   

The differences in the number of viable fetuses in treatment groups  compared with the control were also not significant. However, fetal  weights in rats treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg BITC and placental weights  in all the treatment groups were significantly lower than the control.  

In conclusion, at 12.5-50 mg/kg, BITC did not cause significant pre- and post-implantation fetal loss in pregnant rats. BITC-induced low fetal and placental weights could be of obstetrical importance, but at levels/doses that would provoke maternal toxicity.

Effect on Rat Uterine Contractions

"Effect of benzyl isothiocyanate on spontaneous and induced force of rat uterine contraction. "  Pharmacol Res. 2004 May;49(5):415-22., Adebiyi A1, Adaikan PG,, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital, 119074, Singapore.  


The  present study examines the effect of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) on uterine contraction in vitro. BITC (10-320 microM) caused irreversible,  concentration-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous, prostaglandin  F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and oxytocin-induced force of gravid and  non-gravid rat uterine contractions in contrast to equivalent concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). 

At 160 microM of BITC,  spontaneous, PGF(2alpha) and oxytocin-induced force of gravid rat  myometrial contractions were reduced to 16 +/- 6%, 15 +/- 7 % and 17 +/-  4% (of the control contractions), respectively.  Moreover, at 320 microM  of BITC, spontaneous, PGF(2alpha) and oxytocin-induced force of  non-gravid rat uterine contractions were reduced to 10+/-5 %, 4+/-1 %  and 7+/-2 % (of the control contractions), respectively.

Incubation of isolated non-gravid rat uterine strips in Ringer Locke solution containing 100 microM of BITC for 1h prior to recording their activity also caused significant and irreversible depression of KCl  (60mM)-induced tension development in the uterus relative to the solvent  control (P < 0.01).

In 56% of BITC-pretreated uterine tissues, spontaneous contractions were totally abolished. Cryosections of  BITC-treated uterus (hematoxyline and eosin stained) examined under  light microscope revealed structural disintegrity with marked vacuolar  degeneration of the endometrium and myometrium. 

It thus appears that  like the vascular smooth muscle (reported by previous workers), BITC is also capable of causing functional aberration of isolated uterus by provoking degeneration of the myometrium.